Tyr 14

 PARTICIPANTS & ABSTRACTS

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Géophysique appliquée à l’archéologie sous-marine à Sour et à Saida

Alexandre Sursock

Au Liban, la recherche de l’objet archéologique submergé peut bénéficier des nouveaux moyens disponibles aux deux centres de géophysique et des sciences marines du CNRSL; il s’agit des coûteux instruments embarqués sur le bateau de recherche R/V CANA-CNRS : le sondeur multi-faisceau EM710S, le profileur de sédiments GEOPULSE, et 2 véhicules sous-marins (ROV). Il est ainsi possible de couvrir de vastes zones au large des cités antiques et de donner des vues globales, quoique détaillées, permettant d’appréhender l’histoire maritime d’une manière nouvelle.

Ces techniques ont été mises en œuvre à Saida et à Sour dans le cadre d’un projet financé par la Honor Frost Foundation. Nous expliquons comment notre multi-faisceau a été utilisé à cet effet lors de missions en mer étalées sur 2 ans. Nous discutons les premières hypothèses que cela peut suggérer : Cartes du plancher marin, caractérisation des formations géologiques, mouvements eustatiques ou tectoniques côtiers, etc.

Ces premières tentatives d’adaptation de nos instruments à la recherche archéologique sous-marine au Liban conduisent-elles à des produits utilisables par l’archéologue? Pour répondre à cette question, eu égard à la nouveauté et à la grande masse de l’information ainsi apportées, une confrontation des approches du géophysicien et de l’archéologue est maintenant nécessaire.

The hydrography of ancient Sur. The life sources of the harbour city or Tyre.

Ali Badawi

Directorate General of Antiquities

Since the 13th century B.C, the Tell el-Amara tablets mention the blocking of water supply to the city in order to force the city to surrender. Events are mentioned again in the Assyrian, Babylonian and Hellenistic period respectively for the same reasons.

The Tyrians built a developed artificial water system to adapt for the increases in the number of inhabitants and the growth of economy.  As a result of new archaeological excavations and surveys, more evidence has come to light on the sources beyond the existence of Sur which are revealed in this paper. I will discuss the hydrography of Tyre and the system the city adopts for the investment in the sources for daily life and economic growth.

CADMOS Project: Palaeogeographic evolution offshore Sidon and Tyre based on Multibeam echosounder data

George Papatheodorou and Maria Geraga

with the contribution of D. Christodoulou and N. Georgiou

Laboratory of Marine Geology and Physical Oceanography, Department of Geology, University of Patras, Greece

Marine remote sensing (MRS) techniques introduce many advantages in marine geoarchaeological and underwater archaeological studies. They are fast, flexible, reliable and non-destructive methods. Their use usually aims to: (i) detect, locate and map unknown objects or areas of archaeological interest lying on or beneath the seafloor, (ii) evaluate the evolution of the geomorphological evolution of an area of interest, thus providing scenarios for possible locations of submerged cultural heritage sites and (iii) monitor and quantify changes on the site providing tools for management strategy. State- of-the-art MRS techniques extend the range of conventional diving work providing ability for surveying large seafloor areas in deep waters and in very shallow waters at nearshore areas, always in a systematic fashion.

MRS surveying conducted offshore Sidon and Tyre within the CADMOS Project, using Multibeam Echosounder (MBES). The surveying produced bathymetric and backscatter data sets, covering areas of the seafloor with water depths from 20 to over 150m water. These data sets are considered fundamental in the establishment of a georeferenced database which aims to gather all the possible information for the evolution of the coastal palaeogeography of the area. The MBES data achieved to provide implications for the eustatic sea level changes during the last glacial interglacial cycle and to locate possible tectonic factors affecting the evolution of the coastal zone in the examined areas.

Le château médiéval de Gbail/Byblos à la lumière des récents travaux de fouilles archéologiques. Anis Chaaya
Associate Professor, Lebanese University
Le château médiéval de Gbail /Byblos a été construit par les Francs au début du XIIe siècle. Il a été étudié par M. Dunand et P. Deschamps. Cependant, la guerre civile au Liban entre 1975 et 1990 a gelé toute activité archéologique sur l'ancien site de Gbail/Byblos, à l'exception de quelques opérations de conservation visant à réhabiliter le site pour le tourisme.
En 2015, un nouveau projet de recherche a été lancé sur l'étude du bâti du château médiéval. Plusieurs sondages ont été entrepris dans différents endroits du château et des fossés l'entourant. A la lumière des résultats obtenus, l’analyse du bâti a permis d’avoir une meilleure compréhension de l’évolution de la construction du château de Gbail/Byblos et de l'organisation de ses défenses depuis sa construction jusqu’à la fin du XIIIe siècle.
New Bronze Age discoveries beneath the Medieval Castle of Byblos. Anis Chaaya, Associate Professor, Lebanese University
Hanan Charaf, Research Associate, University of Paris I-Sorbonne
The first season of excavations on the Crusader castle of Jbeil on the ancient mound of Byblos took place in summer of 2015. Work undertaken there uncovered beneath the castle archaeological remains dated to the Early Bronze Age. A glacis built with large limestone and conglomerate boulders ran in an east-west direction under the castle. The Crusaders used this solid defensive construction as a foundation for their castle. The glacis is part of the series of fortifications uncovered by Maurice Dunand west of the Crusader castle. Preliminary examination of the pottery associated with the glacis points to two distinct periods: the Chalcolithic/Early Bronze Age I and the Early Bronze Age II-III. The majority of the ceramics is locally made and their types fall stylistically within the cultural realm of the Northern Levant.
Cultes et iconographie divine à Tyr, Sidon et Byblos d’après les figurines de terre cuite de la période phénicienne (ca 800-500 av. J.-C.). Annie Caubet
Conservateur honoraire, musée du Louvre
L’auteur s’inspire depuis longtemps du modèle chypriote, de Kition notamment, pour tenter de mieux comprendre les cultes et l’iconographie divine des royaumes phéniciens, à travers les figurines de terre cuite.  Les centres de production de figurines de terre cuite se répartissaient  en fonction des territoires politiques de l’île de Chypre, et développaient une imagerie qui répondait aux cultes locaux, eux-mêmes placés sous la protection royale qui en déterminait les aspects. Cette modalité de  création d’identités peut-elle s’observer également pour les royaumes phéniciens, à Tyr et à Sidon, où régnaient des dynasties proches de la famille royale de Kition ? Tirant parti des nouvelles découvertes archéologiques au Liban et du renouveau de la recherche sur la  coroplathie en Méditerranée, cet article tentera de mieux comprendre les cultes et l’iconographie divine à Tyr, Sidon et Byblos. 

History from DNA

Chris Tyler-Smith
Marc Haber
 

DNA sequences (genomes) are transmitted from generation to generation and so carry information about the history of individuals and populations.  This history can be inferred from present-day sequences using simple models and has revealed a shared origin for all modern humans in Africa and later expansion into the rest of the world around 55,000-65,000 years ago, followed by many population migration, growth, splitting and mixing events. Information can also be retrieved from ancient remains, and this has been particularly informative, indicating that all humans outside Africa carry about 2% Neanderthal DNA, and beginning to show the complexity of the later population events, which include major migrations and replacements during the Neolithic and Bronze Age. My talk will describe the background to this work and review what geneticists have learned about the large region that includes parts of North and East Africa, Europe and West Asia.

Les relations entre les Phéniciens et les Chypriotes durant la période de la soumission aux Assyriens. Christina Ioannou
University of Cyprus
Cette présentation examinera la présence phénicienne dans l'île durant la période assyrienne. L'expression artistique de cette période étant fortement influencée par l'art assyrien, sans que les Assyriens soient physiquement présents dans l'île, il conviendra d'étudier le rôle des Phéniciens dans la vie politique et économique et culturelle de cette période à Chypre, tout comme le rôle qu'ils ont joué entre les Assyriens et les rois chypriotes.

Excavating the World’s Oldest Shipwreck: Uluburun and Late Bronze Age Maritime Trade in the Eastern Mediterranean

Cemal Pulak

The cargo of the Late Bronze Age Uluburun ship (ca. 1320±15 B.C.) included 10 tons of copper and a ton of tin ingots, terebinth resin and oil carried in Canaanite jars, glass ingots, elephant and hippopotamus tusks, ostrich eggshells, ebony logs, faience and ivory objects, pottery export wares, gold and silver jewelry, as well as bronze tools and weapons.  A unique gold scarab naming Queen Nefertiti of Egypt was also recovered.  Although most of the cargo originated from a Syro-Palestinian or Cypriot port, the home port of the ship almost certainly lay in the region of the north Carmel Coast of Israel.  The evidence for the cedar-built ship’s origin comes from the 24 stone anchors it carried, which were fashioned from beach rock found along the Carmel Coast, and the ship's pottery galley wares made of clay fabrics also originating from this region.  A bronze female statuette and an ivory trumpet aboard are also of Canaanite origin, as are the oil lamps used aboard, revealing the crew’s preference for this lamp type over the more abundant Cypriot variety in pristine condition carried aboard the ship as cargo.     

The ship and its cargo appear to represent a royal dispatch of enormously rich and valuable raw materials and manufactured goods almost certainly shipped to a single destination.  The venture was probably entrusted to an official or messenger who carried prestige gifts of ivory, tin, and faience to be presented to the elites receiving the cargo.  Personal items of Mycenaean origin point to the presence of two individuals aboard the ship who were probably escorting the goods on the ship to a Mycenaean port.  That these Mycenaeans were not merchants engaged in trade is revealed by the absence of personal balance weights based on the Aegean mass standard; such weights were essential for conducting long-distance commerce in pre-coinage societies.  An Aegean connection for the Uluburun ship that extends into the northern Balkans is evidenced by the recovery from the wreck of several spears and a rare ceremonial scepter-mace from Bulgaria or Romania, and perhaps also by a sword of southern Italian type. 

This remarkable shipwreck clearly demonstrates how Near Eastern raw materials and manufactured goods were dispersed through maritime routes to the Aegean and regions beyond during the Late Bronze Age.  Trade was an integral part of life during this time, serving not only as a way of obtaining raw materials not available locally, but also as a means of diplomacy and fostering extensive cultural exchange, giving merchants extended contact with foreign ways and goods.   

Sidon in the Iron Age I: a haven of continuity

Claude Doumet-Serhal

Since the discovery in 2005 in Sidon of three fragments of a faience vase with cartouches bearing a hieroglyphic inscription of queen tawosret a new Iron Age Temple was discovered with one room revealing two Iron Age knives of the curved one-edged type the type fossil of iron work in the 12th century BC. This temple is still being excavated and the Late Bronze Age levels were reached in some places. The stratigraphy and the pottery reveal a continuity and a long duration in the material culture well into the 8 century BC.

The ancient ports and maritime cultural landscape of Lebanon during the late Mamluk and early Ottoman Periods.

Colin Breen

The ancient ports of the Eastern Mediterranean have been subject to considerable archaeological and historical research. However, the archaeology of their later development has received significantly less attention. This paper will examine the historical archaeology of the ports and their associated maritime cultural landscapes during the Mamluk and early Ottoman periods. This paper will examine the physical development of the ancient ports during the Middle Ages and explore the imposition by the Ottomans of designed urbanscapes, and an administrative structure that manifested itself physically across the ports and surrounding hinterland after 1516. Following a development model of early Ottomanisation urban space was transformed with formalised waterfronts renovated as a consequence of increased mercantile activity, while the defensive capacity of the ports was also upgraded. The Administration was primarily concerned with the control of the major port towns but also retained a degree of interest and control over a system of minor ports and coastal settlements.

The Maritime World of the Early Bronze Age Levant through Space and Time Crystal Safadi

Maritime spaces are endowed with a set of natural characteristics which acts above and beneath the water surface. They foster a home for the movement of winds, of water, of ships, and of people. Yet these spaces are not present in isolation. Land and sea seamlessly merge shaping waterfronts that are marked by human activities. The importance of these coastlines and their archaeological record is paramount in maritime cultural landscape studies. Our knowledge of maritime spaces is growing, much of their affordances, however, remain concealed. By reconstructing and analysing spatial and social processes, we can reach a better understanding of lived maritime spaces.

The Early Bronze Age (EBA) (c. 3600 to 2000 BC) in the Levant conventionally marks the first urban period. The Levantine littoral played a major role during the mid-third millennium, when maritime connections, particularly with Egypt, became vital. Although archaeological narratives have attempted to explain maritime affairs and social complexity of the EBA Levant, most did not consider the totality of Levantine space, neither appraise the Levantine littoral as a seamless space of sea and land.

This paper aims to study and analyse the coastal Levant during the EBA as a space of maritime affordances and accessibility. It builds on a rhythmical and a time-space analysis of the Levantine basin and of the EBA maritime archaeological record of the area, in order to move beyond generic events to everyday social processes, and shift from a representation of space as a container towards social relational space. 

L’île de Ziré, port insulaire de Sidon, à la lumière des nouvelles recherches sous-marines Éric Gottwalles
Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense – France
Située au large de Sidon (actuelle Saïda), au Sud-Liban, l’une des cités majeures de Phénicie, l’île de Ziré, qui a servi de port secondaire extérieur et de carrière dès l’Antiquité, abrite des vestiges terrestres et sous-marins de première importance. L’île a fait l’objet en 1966-1967 d’une première étude sous-marine effectuée par Honor Frost, figure pionnière de l’archéologie sous-marine au Levant.
Dans le cadre d’un projet visant à établir une carte archéologique sous-marine de ce site insulaire, de nouvelles recherches sous-marines ont été entreprises depuis 2013 dont les résultats sont présentés ici.
Le travail de prospection-inventaire en cours du site a permis de vérifier la plupart des découvertes réalisées par H. Frost voici 50 ans mais également d’identifier des vestiges inédits. Le réexamen des principaux vestiges antiques qu’elle a étudiés sur la côte est et au sud de Ziré, à savoir deux structures portuaires (jetées) et un important ensemble d’éléments architecturaux submergés, nous permet d’en proposer de nouvelles interprétation et datation.
En outre, les premières données de terrain recueillies, associées à des recherches en archives, permettent de jeter un nouvel éclairage sur l’organisation et l’évolution de l’île, ainsi que sur son rôle dans le système portuaire de Sidon à travers les époques.

Asiti: reconstructing the religious profile of a Sidonian deity

Eric Gubel, Royal Museum of Art & History, Free University of Brussels

Individual references to a Levantine goddess called Asiti are disseminated  to date in several contributions pertaining to ancient Egyptian and Near Eastern topics. Gathering, updating and complementing the data on hand, Sidon obviously stands out as the most likely candidate for the origin of her cult, which persisted from the 14th c. BCE  to the Persian and contemporary Punic era. Following a critical examination of the written sources, our paper will evaluate their bearing on the iconography of a cluster of yet unidentified Phoenician viz. Punic female deities. A review of the material evidence primarily represented by motifs on bowls, bronze or ivory equestrian harness designs and seals especially, is expected to provide plausible arguments for her identification  within this largely unexplored repertoire.

Ritual feasting and communal meal through the Phoenician Diaspora: a comparison between Sidon and Motya. Federica Spagnoli Collective consumption of food is one of the most distinctive feature of community cults in the Ancient Near East. Rituals of commensality, that took place in the temples under the protection of the deities, had both a political and social meaning, and entailed the membership in an elitist group or in a wider community. Recent discoveries in Middle/Late Bronze Levant (Hazor and Sidon) as well as in the Iron Age in Phoenician contexts (Cyprus and Motya) may illustrate the deep roots of rites which became typical custom of the Mediterranean civilization. 
From Byblos to Ebla. Patterns of Trade in the Third and at the Beginning of the Second Millennium BC in the Light of New Interpretations and Discoveries Frances Pinnock, Rome Several years ago, the discovery of a large amount of raw lapis lazuli in the rooms of the Royal Palace G of 2300 BC, revealed the role of Ebla in the pattern of the Long Distance Trade from the caves of the precious stone to the Mediterranean. The picture was afterwards enriched with new findings and new interpretations and in this paper we will give an up to date analysis of the Ebla findings, and of its foreign relations in the age of the Archives. Following to my recent analyses of findings from Byblos I will also analyse the relations between the two towns at the beginning of the second millennium BC.

Long-term ceramic continuation dynamics in Central Levant. A case study from Sidon and Tyre territories

Francisco J. Núñez & Ursula Wicenciak

Ceramic is one of the paramount manifestations of any culture; therefore, a better understanding of its particular nature and evolution will provide precious information about its producers and, why not, insights into their behavioral patterns.

The best approach to the study of any ceramic repertoire is a precise comprehension of the logic of the material language that it provides. The application of those principles on the ceramic repertoire of the central Levant cities evidences the lineal character over time of its manifestations, so that specific ceramic forms and types evolve transcending the many times rigid limits imposed by the chronological labels.

The aim of this communication is to offer certain examples of this phenomenon taken from recent works undertaken in Jiyeh, Chhim and Tyre.

Réflexions sur quelques inscriptions phéniciennes

Françoise Briquel Chatonnet

 

 

Béryte, Tyr et Sidon dans les débats intellectuels et théologiques de l’époque proto-byzantine (IVe-VIe s.).

Frédéric Alpi

Les ports phéniciens de l’Antiquité tardive et proto-byzantine connaissent une remarquable activité économique et commerciale, dont témoignent abondamment les vestiges de leur culture matérielle. Il faut souligner qu’ils furent aussi des foyers intellectuels très actifs. Les échanges ne sont donc pas limités au seul domaine marchand et les idées politiques, scientifiques ou religieuses ont circulé tout aussi bien, contribuant au dynamisme de la vie sociale et intellectuelle. Si le rôle de Béryte, dans l’ordre juridique, est assez bien connu, avec sa célèbre école de droit, on doit rappeler que c’est justement sa situation maritime qui permit cette éclosion et que d’autres branches du savoir y furent cultivées également, que le développement de la jurisprudence elle-même a pu concerner d’autres domaines que le seul droit civil, notamment dans l’ordre ecclésiastique. Traditionnellement tournée vers l’Égypte, Tyr a accueilli, pour sa part, l’influence de la pensée alexandrine, avant même la diffusion du christianisme. Dans les débats théologiques des Ve-VIe s., les prises de position de ses évêques ne sont donc pas exclusivement commandées par des rivalités de voisinage avec les autres sièges de Phénicie maritime mais s’enracinent aussi dans la continuité d’une affinité culturelle. Il reste que, situés au cœur géographique de la querelle christologique entre Antioche et Alexandrie, les trois ports de la côte libanaise se sont successivement rangés dans l’un ou l’autre camp.  

Deities in Phoenicia

Gaby Abou Samra The paper deals with the double divinity association case in Phoenicia, especially in the southern region. This research will present this well-known phenomenon in Phoenician religion, according to epigraphy, archaeology, history and classical authors.

From the Cyclades to Mesopotamia: Cultural Contacts in Byblos during the 4th Millennium  BC.

 

Gassia Artin

The scattered presence of personal ornaments, amulets, and figurines over a vast region spreading from Anatolia to Mesopotamia at the end of the 4th Millennium BC suggests that newly appropriated techniques along with economic structure modifications and long-distance trade were taking place. In fact, the establishment and evolution of a more complex social and trade system was emerging in the region.

The presence of both violin shaped and eye shaped (Eye idol) amulet representations on the site of Byblos, at the end of the 4th Millennium BC indicates commercial activities with Cycladian Islands, Anatolia as well as Mesopotamian and Iranian territories.

This paper will explore the role played by Byblos  in this commercial routes network, and analyse how Byblos was both a stage for products, techniques, and cultural elements and a major exchange point.

Phoenician ivories from Nimrud

Georgina Herrmann

The majority of the thousands of ivories found at Assyrian Nimrud are 'Phoenician' in style, i.e. with a strong Egyptianizing element. These can be divided into various groups, the finest of which may have been carved in royal workshops at Tyre/Sidon.

Sidonian Religion in the light of the Tell el-Burak evidence Helen Sader AUB Tell el-Burak is located on the southern Lebanese coast between Sidon and Sarepta. The Iron Age settlement exposed on the southern slope of the site has yielded a cultic installation and a wealth of small finds which allow a new insight into the religion of the Sidonian kingdom. The paper will present the excavated evidence from Tell el-Burak which testifies to the hybrid character of Phoenician religion, characterized by a mixture of local traditions and foreign influences.
Heterarchy or Hierarchy: Tell Fadous-Kfarabida and Byblos during the Early Bronze Age Hermann Genz
American University of Beirut
Despite almost a century of research on the Early Bronze Age in Lebanon, surprisingly little is known about the economic and political organization of this period. This contribution seeks to address the issue of the economic and political status of the coastal settlement of Tell Fadous-Kfarabida during the Early Bronze Age III by comparing various aspects of material culture (architecture, pottery, glyptic) to the finds unearthed at Byblos more than half a century ago.
The presence of public buildings and prestige objects at the rather small site of Tell Fadous-Kfarabida, together with indications of a specialized economy according to the archaeobotanical and archaeozoological records suggests that it occupied a special position within a larger economic network. Most likely Tell Fadous-Kfarabida should be interpreted as an administrative subcentre connected to the more important site of Byblos. If this interpretation is accepted, it suggests a more complex economic and political organization during the Early Bronze Age III in coastal Lebanon than hitherto envisaged.
Harbours at the central Levantine coast from the Late Bronze and Iron Age Periods Ibrahim Noureddine

Since the dawn of time, the coasts of the eastern Mediterranean have been rich in maritime activity. At various periods in history, (i.e. the early Bronze Age) these coasts served as highways and trading routes connecting various civilizations. Millenniums of commerce, seafaring, marine wars, and fishing have left an enormous amount of archaeological remains and artifacts on the coast and seabed in the heart of the eastern Mediterranean, particularly in Lebanon. There shipwrecks, ports, anchorages, and submerged rock-cut coastal installations have established its maritime archaeological heritage and mark large portion of human history as ancient as the exportation of the alphabets.

This paper will focus on two major points: the ancient texts that illustrate ports on the eastern Mediterranean sailing from Byblos, Tyre, and other Levantine cities, mainly to Egypt; and the underwater archaeological surveys on the ancient harbour of Tyre and Byblos. Despite the uncertainty regarding the existence of harbour installation during the Bronze Age, it is certain that various forms of ports were used at that time to transport freights using sizable vessels that correspond to the period, and were big enough to handle the bulky cargoes of the era. Major changes in the eastern Mediterranean occurred during the 12th century BC with the disappearance of the two great-centralized states that exercised the role of police in territory, the Hittites and the Egyptians.

Currently, a few built harbours are confirmed on the eastern Mediterranean to belong to the Iron Age period. The fact that the only other area where this construction method is attributed to the Sea People is at their settlements along the Levantine coast following their arrival during the early Iron Age would lends credence to the idea that the Sea People’s technology, imported from the Mycenaean world, had influence on the local eastern Mediterranean technology; therefore, the ashlar-building techniques implemented on harbours were introduced as a kind of a marriage between both cultures. Evidence of ashlar-building harbour jetties has been noted clearly on the Levantine proper since the Iron Age II; for instance, the harbour construction at Tabbat al-Hammam dates to the 9th century BC, with the closest comparison to Tabat al-Hammam being Tyre, identified as the Phoenician harbour 8th century BC, and finally, the Atlit harbour that is considered to be a replica of Tyre’s, and dates to the 7th century BC.

Existence of Stone anchors offshore Byblos would add to the fact that exterior anchorages were considered fundamental in the Bronze Age period due to the absence of built harbours that provide instant security to vessels at that time. Perhaps the emergences of the “Cothon” and “Slipway” shore modifications during the Bronze Age period were alternatives to a fully-protected area, which became the built harbours of the Iron Age Period as the Harbour at Tyre. However, this prompts the question: how did Bronze Age sailors manage to load or unload frights offshore? Or more specifically: how did they even pull anchors under substantial weights? More studies that focus on the means used to load and unload offshore cargos would help to understand the harbour works and anchorages of this era. Presently, geomorphology and geo-archaeology have become crucial in understanding the major changes to the reef levels in ancient sites.

The rural hinterland of Tyre between the Late Bronze Age and the Hellenistic periods: the example of Kharayeb and Jemjim. Ida Oggiano – Wissam Khalil It is well known that the formation and development of cities and countryside are part of the same synchronic process that should be studied on a regional level and over long periods. Development of urban settlements and of countryside are intrinsically linked. Since the 70s ', many scholars of the Near East have ceased to deal exclusively with urban centers and monumental architecture, orienting their investigations into complex economic systems, including the examination of the area and the small rural settlements. Despite this orientation of research, the situation of the hinterland of the Phoenician coastal cities is not very well known.
Starting from this assumption, the Italo-Lebanese project aims to investigate the mutual relationships between the urban landscape as a great center of Tyre and the rural countryside south of the city, considering the landscape an expression of the community contributing to form it.
The talk will present the project that has been started in 2009, with the study of coroplastic material from the favissa of Kharayeb and has been continued with the resumption, in 2013, of work in the area of the ancient cult place that brought to light evidences of the Late Iron Age and Hellenistic period. The discovery, during the 2015 survey, of an ancient settlement, in the locality of Jemjim, at the entrance of Kharayeb, with material from the Late Bronze Age to Roman period, enables us to enlarge our knowledge of the landscape this region over a longer period.
La diaspora sidonienne à l'époque hellénistique et romaine Jean-Baptiste Yon, Laboratoire HiSoMA - UMR 5189, Université de Lyon - CNRS - Université Lyon 2 Pendant les périodes hellénistique et romaine, Sidon fut un acteur des courants d'échange qui reliaient les différents ports méditerranéens. Dans cette communication, on s'intéressera à ceux qui par leurs déplacements ont contribué à la prospérité de Sidon, pour obtenir un éclairage indirect sur les relations et la place de la cité dans les échanges méditerranéens, mais également sur la population de la ville et son évolution. En effet, on connaît un peu la population de la cité pour la période romaine, grâce aux très nombreuses inscriptions funéraires, mais il n'en va pas de même à l'époque hellénistique, où les témoignages externes sont les plus importants. L'ensemble des sources sur la diaspora, comparées aux sources locales, peut permettre d'obtenir une image plus équilibrée de Sidon entre la conquête macédonienne et la fin de la période romaine.
Métiers religieux, métiers profanes en Phénicie et dans la diaspora phénicienne Jimmy Daccache Certains métiers et fonctions, qu’ils soient religieux ou profanes, étaient considérés dignes d’être mentionnés dans des textes en tous genres : votifs, funéraires, administratifs, etc. Cette étude se focalisera d’abord sur les différentes activités exercées en Phénicie, notamment dans les trois cités-États, Byblos, Sidon et Tyr, d’après des témoignages textuels, datant de l’âge du Fer jusqu’à l’époque gréco-romaine. Ensuite, une comparaison avec les métiers et les fonctions pratiqués dans la diaspora permettra de préciser les rapports culturels entre la métropole et les installations phéniciennes dans le bassin méditerranéen.
The Persian Period at Sidon John Curtis It is well-known that Sidon was an important centre in the Persian period. There was a mint at Sidon, and Diodorus Siculus refers (91.41.5-6) to a royal ‘paradeisos’ (pleasure garden) at Sidon “in which the Persian kings were wont to take their recreation”. He also describes how Tennes the king of Sidon revolted against Artaxerxes III in 351 BC and how the revolt was put down with great severity. On the college site, a typical Achaemenid column capital in the form of two bull protomes and an Achaemenid column base, both presumably from a Persian-style columned hall, were found in the 19th century. On the outskirts of Sidon there was an important Persian-period sanctuary at the nearby site of Eshmun, and there was a Persian-period cemetery with stone anthropoid sarcophagi at Magharet Abloun to the south-east of Sidon. In spite of all this, archaeological evidence for Persian presence in central Sidon has until now remained tantalizingly meager. The British Museum excavations at the college site, however, directed by Dr Claude Doumet-Serhal since 1988, have started to produce evidence for the Persian period. A fragment of a bull protome column capital has been discovered, and a large number of typically Persian-period amphorae have been excavated. Most interesting, though, are the remains of a columned building which was presumably a Persian apadana, perhaps even the seat of Tennes himself. This paper will review the evidence for this building and describe all the other Persian-period material found on the college site. 
Les ports de la Phénicie antique au regard des sources épigraphiques grecques et latines.  Julien Aliquot CNRS, UMR 5189 HiSoMA   Les ports de la Phénicie antique ont livré une série d’inscriptions grecques et latines qui apportent des informations de première main sur leurs infrastructures, leurs activités et leur rôle dans le commerce méditerranéen sous l’Empire romain. Il s’agit de faire le point sur l’apport d’une documentation irremplaçable, que l’on cherchera à confronter aux autres témoignages disponibles. On insistera sur les cas de Byblos, de Sidon et de Tyr, cités pour lesquelles l’épigraphie est particulièrement riche en la matière.
Hunting, breeding and fishing activities on the coastal Levant (3rd millennium BC).  Jwana Chahoud & Emmanuelle Vila
CNRS-UMR 5133, Archeorient Lyon
Lebanese University, Beirut
Animal remains from levels of Bronze Age from Sidon, Byblos and Tell Arqa reveal new data regarding the food supply and food processing from the coastal Early Bronze Age cities of the Central Levant. Food economy based on animal remains from Early Bronze age settlements of the central Levant indicates a clear consumption of domestic and wild animals. The mains domestic species are sheep and goats along with cattle and pigs. Animal exploitation is oriented toward meat and milk production. Fallow deer and aquatic taxa such as hippopotamus and fish were consumed in these settlements. The selection of these animals is based on the breeding activities and the availability of environment resources in the region. 
Burial Rituals at Tell el-Dab´a and Sidon: a comparative study Karin Kopetzky  

Since 1998 the British excavations to Sidon dug up nearly 150 burials dating to the period of the Middle Bronze Age. Once most likely isolated in or from the contemporary village, the deceased were buried in a cemetery, individually or collectively, in constructed tombs or large storage vessels. Throughout the whole period Egyptian objects were found amongst the burial goods inside these tombs.

At Tell el-Dabca in the north-eastern Nile delta several hundred tombs were found dating into the same period, which likewise belonged to carriers of the MBA culture and their descendants. Being originally of Canaanite origin, they adapted quickly to their new life in Egypt and merged their own funerary traditions with Egyptian ones.

This lecture likes to highlight the mutual influences and differences in the funerary traditions of these two important sites.

Archaeotecture: The Future of Tyre's Collective Memory Karl Abi Karam Archaeotecture is a design-based theory that proposes the convergence of the architectural and archaeological professions and explores the notion that the process of an archaeological excavation is a form of architectural space making. It is an attempt to avoid drastically altering the "original" aesthetics and "authenticity" of an archaeological site without a surface-based, ideologically driven, structural imposition by applying what can be described as a reverse-palimpsest approach. As a result, it aims to reveal the city’s forgotten layers in-situ through a tunnelling-creation of subterranean spaces to foster a unified collective memory. The idea of a collective memory, as proposed by Aldo Rossi in his book “The Architecture of the City”, emphasizes the relationship the inhabitants have with their city in which memory through urban artefacts and monuments give meaning to the city.

Archaeotecture’s alternative methodological approach is an indirect result and critique of contemporary building techniques lack natural material applications, and of questionable conservation methods used in archaeological and historic urban environments. It argues that such trends consequently endanger the philosophically defining characteristics of a ruin as proposed in the literary works of “Nostalgia for Ruins” by Andreas Huyssen and “Casuality: Ruin Time and Ruins” by Florence Hetzler. The design element of this dissertation will emphasize on the issue that a ruin separated from its natural setting is no longer part of a ruin as it has lost its sense time, space and place. 

The multi-ethnic and multi-religious ancient city of Tyre in Lebanon, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, will be investigated by analysing its fragmented urban artefacts so as to propose solutions to foster communal unity, through an appreciation and merging of archaeological heritage and architecture. Given that the city continues to suffer from sectarian tensions, causing also an uncontrollable urban expansion, Archaeotecture’s visually unobtrusive nature avoids direct ideological impositions in order to reconcile the divided city whilst promoting archaeological activities that maintain a romanticized state of ruination. 


Some preliminary thoughts about Sidon's relation to Cyprus during the Early Iron Age. What pottery can tell us about."

Kevin Spathmann

Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany)

 

The quantity of Cypriote and Cyprus-related pottery material found during the last decades in ancient Saïda / Sidon is impressive and hints to the special relation of this Levantine centre with the island during this crucial period. A Ph.D. research focuses on this material with the aim to contextualize it within the larger Eastern Mediterranean horizon and to throw some light on this interesting relationship.

There is a high variety of imported types and shapes as well as some local fabrics made in Cypriote style which hints to a possible uninterrupted connection between the island of Cyprus and the Levantine coast during the transition from the Bronze to the Iron Age in the Eastern Mediterranean. In this regard the material found in a structure identified by the excavation leader Claude Doumet-Serhal as a possible ritual structure, directly located on top of the Late Bronze Age, is of great importance. The very careful excavation of this extremely important stratigraphy does not only allow us a better understanding of the Cypriote-Levantine relation in general, but also further insights into the Cypriote pottery sequence, whose dating is still mainly based on tombs with multiple burials. methods with which a precisely dating of the pottery is possible. Furthermore, the relationship of the imported Cypriote and the local made Cypriote-related pottery shall be discussed in more detail, to approach the role of the island for the Levantine coast regarding trade and the exchange of ideas during the Early Iron Age.

The temple of Baalat Gebal at Byblos and its fortune– an architectural and functional reappraisal. Lorenzo Nigro – Sapienza University of Rome The recent publication of M. Dunand’s excavations allows to re-examine the architecture of the Temple of Baalat Gebal at Byblos, a major monument in the harbor-city during the Bronze and Iron Ages. The layout of the temple, its architectural conceiving, as well as he transformations of its inner and outer volumes, are thoroughly reconstructed with the aim of investigating aspects of cult and ideology of the polias goddess of Byblos and its fortune in the in the Levant and the Mediterranean.
The Physiology of the Nile Delta, its Harbours and its Sea Traffic to the Levant in the Second Millennium BC Manfred Bietak This lecture tries to assess the physiology of the Nile and the settlement pattern of its delta during the Second Millennium BC. It seems that the easternmost river was at that time the most important sea traffic route, especially for the connection to the Levant.
The western half of the Delta is devoid of a consistent settlement coverage during that period what asks for a cogent environmental explanation. Finally the position of per-annual harbours  for seagoing ships  in the Delta will be discussed.

The genetic history of the Levant

Marc Haber

Using sequencing data from modern and ancient human DNA we reconstruct the history of the Levant region presenting genetic insights into the demographic events that shaped the Levantine populations since Neolithic times.

Recent advances in the knowledge of Late Iron Age Tyre. Preliminary results of the excavations in the Crusader’s Cathedral area.

Maria Eugenia Aubet & Francisco J. Núñez and Ali Badawi  

Recent advances in the knowledge of Late Iron Age Tyre. Preliminary results of the excavations in the Crusader’s Cathedral area.

The relevance of Tyre in the Iron Age is inversely proportional to what we know about the city itself and its characteristics. For many decades, and due to well known tragic circumstances, it sufficed with Patricia M. Bikai’s excavations of the seventies, which soon became a reference not only for the studies centered in the Near East, but also for the understanding of the Phoenician colonial phenomenon in the West Mediterranean.

This situation has changed in recent years. Since 1997 the joint Spanish-Lebanese project in Tyre has produced valuable information that has complemented and corrected certain aspects of the sound sequential framework previously established by the American scholar. This project started with the excavations in the cemetery of al-Bass (1997-2009), which were complemented with the renewed works in the vicinity of the Crusader’s Cathedral (2014-2016). The result is a perfect combination of data originated in two different but complementary archaeological contexts.

The works are still underway; however, the aim of this communication is to offer a first approach to recent works on the former island of Tyre, focusing especially in the possible connections between the Late Iron Age remains of Bikai’s excavations and the data recently unearthed in the area.

Decline of the Late Antique Rural Settlements in the chora of Sidon Mariusz Gwiazda
Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology
The question of settlement continuity in Syro-Palestine between the Byzantine and the Early Islamic periods is currently one of the research subjects most frequently addressed by the archaeologists and historians studying the Late Antique period in this region. However, the studies produced to-date have a number of obvious gaps. The first one results from the fact that the main focus in this field of research is on the urban settlements, while the villages draw much less attention. Information about the latter is obtained mainly from surface surveys rather than systematic excavations. The second gap concerns the geographical framework: up to now, the region of Phoenicia has been clearly left out in the discussions of the problem of continuity or decline of settlement in Syro-Palestine.

The present communication is an answer to this unsatisfactory state of research. In this context my interest is focused on two village settlements in the northern hinterland of Sidon: Jiyeh (Porphyreon) on the coast and Chhim in the mountains. Both sites are excavated by the Polish-Lebanese archaeological mission working on behalf of the Direction Générale des Antiquités and the Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology. Through the analysis of stratigraphic sequences and objects related to them, I will present the progressive decline that occurred on both sites from approximately the second half of the sixth century AD. In the light of archaeological evidence presently at our disposal, this process ended in the seventh century AD, after Phoenicia’s capture by the Arabs. By referring to the accounts of the historians of the Early Islamic period, the studies on climate changes in antiquity and the processes of formation of archaeological record in Jiyeh and Chhim, I will discuss the possible reasons why the history of these two settlements has been brought to the end.   
Egypt and Byblos: Intelligence Sharing During the Amarna Period Mark Woolmer
Assistant Principal, Collingwood College | Durham University
Teaching Associate, Department of Classics and Ancient History, Durham
The sharing of intelligence between national governments is currently at the centre of a number of countries’ attempts to co-operate on contemporary problems such as preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and curtailing the activities of terrorist groups and drug traffickers. The importance of accurate intelligence for devising effective policies to deal with these threats have led scholars, and those in the professional intelligence gathering agencies, to devote more time and effort to determining how intelligence collection can be improved. These studies have revealed that in order to minimise the risks, governments seeking to acquire intelligence from other nations often create ‘reciprocal’ or ‘incentivised’ relationships. These relationships include a dominant state that is responsible for making the most important decisions and for monitoring compliance, and a number of subordinate states that receive benefits for sharing intelligence including foreign aid, economic incentives, and protection from external threats. Although such arrangements are believed to be modern initiatives, there is strong evidence indicating that the Egyptians were utilising a similar system during the Amarna Period. Although WMDs, terrorism, and drug trafficking are recent problems faced by governments, there was no less of a need for accurate intelligence in the ancient world. Threats such as foreign invasion, political dissent, rebellion, and natural disasters needed to be dealt with swiftly and thus accurate intelligence was vital to a timely and successful response. Due to Byblos’ geo-political positioning and its ability to acquire information from far flung regions quickly and almost effortlessly on account of its commercial networks, the city was a vital repository of intelligence. This paper will therefore posit that during the Amarna period the relationship between Egypt and Byblos can best be characterised as one in which the latter willingly supplied intelligence to the former in return for political, economic, and military assistance.
 
The stories of Kamid el-Loz and the history of the site's embeddedness into the politics of the Mediterranean hinterland.  Marlies Heinz  I will talk about what kinds of material development we see in Kamid throughout the ages, expound the social, political and economic developments that I understand as impulses for the emergence of the material evidence and connect the local stories with the regional and interregional / international political developments. Special attention will be paid to the question if, how and for what periods the material evidence reveals cultural and political relations between Kamid el-Loz in the Beqa’a plain and the three global harbours Tyre, Sidon and Byblos.
Tradition versus Innovation in 2nd Millennium BC Lebanese Sanctuaries: From Byblos to Sidon and Beyond. Levantine Prototypes, Innovative Features and Precursory Elements Maura Sala The Lebanese sanctuaries of the 2nd millennium BC, from Byblos to Sidon and beyond, exhibit deep and diversified interconnections with sacred architecture, cult practises and rituals of both north- and south-Levantine cult places, thus testifying a most distinctive feature of the area: crossroad of cultural exchanges and vehicle of traditions, from north to south, from the inland to the Mediterranean coast.
At the same time, each of them represents a preeminent indicator of a local specificity of cult, ritual and sacral architecture, which was able to re-interpret freely shared Levantine traditions and to codify original prototypes.
The 2nd millennium BC sanctuaries of Byblos and Sidon are the outcomes of a vital and multi-faceted local culture, examples of the eclecticism and originality of the Lebanese religious milieu: deeply rooted in the Levantine background, they were bearer as well of ground-breaking developments, that would shape the following Levantine and Phoenician religious traditions, from the Levant to the Mediterranean world.
MLK ṢDNM ou la question de la royauté Sidonienne Maroun KHREICH, Université Libanaise La traduction du terme MLK ṢDNM comporte une certaine ambigüité, soulevant ainsi de nombreuses interrogations notamment le titre porte par les rois de Sidon. La royauté sidonienne a toujours été considérée à partir de la documentation relative à la deuxième moitié du premier millénaire av. n. e. Cependant, si l’on se réfère à l’histoire de Sidon, il semble que MLK ṢDNM correspondait au contexte historique qui existait à Sidon avant sa destruction en 677, réalité qui diffère grandement de celle du règne de la famille d’Eshmounazor et de Tabnit.
Some reflexions on Phoenician religion through the importation of Greek Pottery May Haider During the Iron Age, and mainly the last half of the period, we notice that Greek pottery was imported in mass quantities all over the Levantine coast. While studying this extensive material we noticed that only specific typologies and iconographies made their way to this part of the Mediterranean. This phenomenon cannot be arbitral but rather an indicator of a sophisticated and urbanized society that borrowed specific forms and stories from foreign cultures and adapted them into their own social, cultural and religious parameters. we don’t know a lot about the Phoenician culture and we know even less about the Phoenician religion, the new studies conducted on Greek pottery coming from Sidon, Tyre and Byblos will hopefully help us shed new light on the subject. 
 

“Tyrian & Carthaginian connections” in Sardinia (end of 9th – end of 6th centuries BC): New Phoenician evidences from Sulky and from the sanctuary of Ashtart (Cuccureddus)

Michele Guirguis

University of Sassari - Italy

Dipartimento di Storia, Scienze dell’Uomo e della Formazione

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Recent excavations in Sulky (Sant’Antioco-Sardinia-Italy), with several contexts of the most ancient layers examined until now, show an early Phoenician foundation active from the mid-8th century BC. Numerous fragments of Phoenician and MGII greek pottery found in secondary context, allows us to determine one precocious phase that can be dated around 800-760 BC. The material culture shows a very strong link with the oriental roots, namely with the analogous expressions typical of the Phoenician ceramic repertoire in the Levant during the Iron Age II. From a “Tyrian connection” that characterizes the first wave of expansion, the evolution of urban tissues and funerary spaces of southern Sardinia during the 7th and 6th centuries BC, suggests a new “Carthaginian connection”, involving the central-Mediterranean sector. New data from the sanctuary of Ashtart at Cuccureddus-Villasimius open new perspective about Phoenician presence in Sardinia during the Iron Age. The interaction between local Nuragic communities and the newcomers in the area, sheds new light on the cultural background of the island and offers the opportunity to rethinking the Levantine expansion between the main Phoenician city and the central Mediterranean.

Enemy ships at
Ampi: a cry from Byblos.
Nadine Panayot Haroun and Lucy Semaan, University of Balamand Threatened by an Amurru invasion in the 14th century BC, the king of Byblos Rib-Hadda cries:  “He {Abdi-Ashirta} has now [st]ationed ships of Arw[ad}a' {i}n Ampi and in Šigata” in one of his numerous begging letters to the Pharaoh Akhenaten for protection. In another letter, Ampi is listed as one of the “cities with ships”. Ampi, identified with modern Anfeh, must have therefore held one (or more) harbour(s), at least from the Late Bronze Age. 
These papers consider recent on land and underwater investigations conducted by the Department of Archaeology and Museology at the University of Balamand at the site of Anfeh in order to identify possible harbour installations.
The first paper presents a multifaceted project aiming at reconstructing the history of Anfeh. It combines archaeological data from surveys and excavations, with an in-depth study of ancient epigraphic and literary sources; as well as ethnographic data collected from oral histories. Continuous research promises to locate the ancient city of Ampi and to investigate its maritime activities.
The second paper draws on a multi-disciplinary approach — including remote-sensing, photogrammetry, and an in-depth study of sea-level changes — to contribute an appreciation of the characteristics of the bio-physical settings and how these influenced past maritime activity. Such results also enrich our understanding of the development and use of Anfeh’s underwater and coastal environments by people in the past. By the same token, a systematic assessment of the underwater cultural heritage at the site would be reached and would help in identifying potential shipwrecks, dump sites, and offshore anchorages to name a few. Such nonintrusive methods of investigation form a baseline of knowledge on which to develop future research initiatives.
     
The role of the Lebanese coast in the politics and trade of the MBA Nathalie Kallas The Levant witnesses an unprecedented growth of strong polities during the MBA II that was triggered on the one side by the rise to of the Mesopotamian powers during the 20-19thc BCE and on the other by the intense contact with Egypt during one of its greatest eras, the Middle Kingdom followed by the foreign rule of the “Hyksos”. These kingdoms or city-states spread from north to south during the MBA, following the main trade routes: the Levantine coast from Ugarit to Ashkelon, and inland route from Aleppo to Hazor. This further led to the establishment along the cost of commercial ports, which eventually developed into kingdoms in their own right. Unfortunately, the picture about Lebanon during the MBA is not so complete, due to the low quality of the records of the old excavations by today’s standards, the lack of modern excavations of major sites and a general paucity in the field in studying and synthesizing or publishing available information. Despite the scarcity of information, this paper intends to examine the role of the MBA Lebanese coastal cities in regional politics and trade; shedding some light on the balance of power in the area. This is achieved through compiling and analyzing the published material, including written record and with a focus on the more recent archaeological evidence.
Maritime Networks on the Levantine Coast: Production and Distribution in the Roman Period

Naseem Raad

 

The Levantine coast is characterized by of a number of naturally protected harbours and anchorages that have facilitated maritime activity for thousands of years. With the arrival of Pompey in 64 BCE, social, political, and technological changes sparked a number of developments on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean. This resulted in new ports and harbours being built in unprotected sites, creating new possible routes for seafarers in the area, as well as the expansion of oil, wine, and fish sauce importation and exportation. This paper serves to briefly examine published material to shed light on the connections between coastal sites in modern-day Lebanon according to these networks, and propose an approach to contextualizing the data and drawing patterns between major sites such as Tyre, Sidon, Beirut, and Byblos. Specifically, this work suggests theoretical framework for analysing economic exchanges that took place in the Roman period based largely on the approach of New Institutional Economics. The political, cultural, and economic institutions under Roman rule largely governed production and distribution on the Levantine coast; I hope to propose the best way to understand these systems in the area looking specifically at the sites of Tyre, Sidon, Beirut and Byblos through published material.
Les ports de Byblos, Sidon et Tyr
Etude comparative diachronique des caractéristiques physiques et structurelles
Nicolas Carayon (University of Southampton), Nick Marriner (UMR 6249 CNRS) et Christophe Morhange (CEREGE UMR 6635 CNRS) Byblos, Tyr et Sidon sont trois ports majeurs de la cote du Levant actifs depuis l’Âge du Bronze jusqu’à nos jours. Tous trois ont été l’objet de fouilles archéologiques et d’études géomorphologiques fondamentales dont les résultats ont été repris de nombreuses fois dans la littérature sur les ports méditerranéens dans l’Antiquité. Même si nos connaissances de ces trois sites maritimes demeurent en certains points lacunaires, il est désormais possible d’en dresser un tableau comparatif et évolutif fiable. L’objectif de cette communication est de suivre l’évolution physique de ces trois ports en insistant sur les potentialités portuaires naturelles et leur anthropisation depuis l’Âge du Bronze jusqu’à l’époque romaine. On se propose alors de mesurer l’impact de l’anthropisation d’un milieu naturel en termes de capacité et d’amélioration des conditions portuaire en relation avec des processus historiques proches mais non identiques. 
Byblos et son port  Nicolas Grimal (Egyptologue/Orientaliste, Professeur au Collège de France) &
Martine Francis-Allouche (archéologue sous-marin, chercheur associé au Collège de France).
Cinq années de prospection et d'analyses, menées au sein du programme de recherches géo-archéologiques « Byblos & la mer », ont permis de localiser le port antique de Byblos et de déterminer sa relation à la mer. Les études de résistivité qui les ont accompagnées sur terre ont confirmé cette localisation et aidé à déterminer l'emplacement et la taille du bassin.
Les sondages et dégagements limités effectués, en suivant les données fournies par l'ensemble
de ces mesures, complétées elles-mêmes par plusieurs séries de carottages, ont confirmé définitivement l'emplacement du port. Depuis, les opérations menées, à terre comme en mer,
permettent d'esquisser les contours de la zone por¬tuaire et sa relation avec le tell.
Astarte thronoi and their cultural impact beyond homeland  Nota Kourou This paper discusses some free-standing thrones found in Crete and elsewhere in the Aegean, which are frequently called Astarte thronoi. They are not identical, in size or type and decoration, to the typical Phoenician Astarte thrones, although they have Phoenician elements. Emphasis is given to the cultural roots of these monuments in the Aegean in an attempt to relate them with a possible Phoenician sea route to the West .

Timber, ships and mobility in the ancient world of the Eastern Mediterranean

Otto Cichocki, Inst. VIAS,

University of Vienna

Timber of selected, sometimes peregrine tree species was at all times not only favoured as construction material. As precious raw material, status symbol and element of religious practice this commodity was a sought-after asset of trade connections and loot on warfare expeditions. Both attempts imply mobility of big numbers of people. For transport on land wooden carriages were invented for transporting heavy goods or for fast translocation of warriors. For transport on water ships were built, again of selected timber. Logs had to be transported from the woods down to the river or sea shore, were they were assembled to rafts or even ships, to be dismantled at the target country for further use.

For all this mobility on water the existence of functioning harbours is a precondition, as soldiers (with their carriages and animals) and merchants had to embark and disembark, goods had to be loaded and ships could weather a storm in a safe place. The possibility of quick launching of forceful warships was of great advantage. In the Eastern Mediterranean these components, forming a complex network and being permanently influenced by political changes, were developed to high technical standards. Wood remains of different archaeological records, areas and time frames may contribute to reconstruct these changes and developments.

 

Ancient maritime routes to and from Phoenicia

Pr Dr Pascal ARNAUD

Senior fellow, Institut Universitaire de France

It is well known that Ancient Phoenicians established a large maritime network that extended down to the island of Mogador on the Atlantic coast of Morocco. This was based upon actual sea routes. Routes from and to Phoenicia thus mean most of the routes of the Mediterranean and parts of those of the Atlantic. These depended mainly upon two constraints: weather conditions, highly impacted by seasonality, and the kind of ships used. In classical times, the Phoenician ship- ‘par excellence’ was the gaulos, whose Greek name makes it the absolute ‘round ship’, while the Greeks were rather using merchant galleys and smaller ships. The Ancient were soon able to sail at blue sea especially when they were using sail ships, and were not essentially constrained to coasting. In the area close to Phoenicia, Cyprus – a central piece of the Phoenician world – played and central role in the organization of sea-routes. The etesian wins made it quite easy to reach Phoenicia from the West, but imposed to navigate Cyprus channel, and southern Anatolia to Crete in autumn, or to follow the coast of Egypt and Africa in Spring. Sailing to the far Mediterranean West needed to sail either the Staits of Messina, that seems to have been mainly a Greek route, or the Channel of Sicily, mainly exposed to South Winds, that imposed many stops and diverted routes through lesser Syrtis (a place that did not fit well for stops and has significant tides), especially in Summer. All the narrows (channel of Sicily, channel of la Galite, Sea of Alboràn, Pillars of Herakles) needed the control of sheltered areas for wintering and/ or waiting for good weather conditions. These were not necessarily based on heavy built-up infrastructure: Malta, Utica, Hippo, Karalis, Nora, Sulci, Tharros, Tingis, Gadir, Lixus or Kerne were for ones.  Settlements on the northern side of the Sea of Alboràn (exposed to changing winds) completed the system. Pre-punic settlements, combined with natural conditions do provide us with a clear enough footage of the routes to and from Phoenicia.
Quelles galères ! Les graffiti de bateaux de la ville franque de Tyr

Patricia Antaki-Masson

Parmi les nombreux graffiti qu'abrite la chapelle franque du Saint-Sauveur à Tyr, figurent plusieurs dessins de bateaux. Ces documents archéologiques particuliers livrent de nombreuses informations que cette communication propose de déchiffrer. Notre étude tentera de cerner l'identité de leurs auteurs et les raisons qui ont motivé leur geste. On s'attachera à expliquer le choix de l'emplacement de ces graffiti marins en mettant en exergue l'importance de Tyr et de son port à l'époque des Croisades. Les types d'embarcations représentés seront également déterminés à travers l'examen des détails de construction, d'aménagement et d'accastillage et leur confrontation avec d'autres œuvres similaires contemporaines, dans la région (Palestine, Chypre, Turquie) voire ailleurs en Méditerranée, ainsi qu'avec des représentations analogues sur d'autres supports (miniatures, céramiques, etc.) et avec les descriptions fournies par les sources littéraires.

Du nouveau sur l’urbanisme de Tyr Pierre-Louis Gatier, UMR 5189, HiSoMA, Maison de l’Orient et de la Méditerranée, CNRS-Université Lumière-Lyon 2 Les fouilles et relevés conduits depuis 2008 dans le site de Tyr-ville par l’équipe franco-libanaise de la Mission archéologique de Tyr ont apporté des nouveautés importantes en ce qui concerne la zone située au Sud de l’île – puis presqu’île – de Tyr. Les identifications et les datations des monuments sont désormais assez différentes de ce qui résultait des travaux anciens (1946-1975) :
- Un très grand ensemble thermal parfaitement symétrique, composé des bains proprement dits, de deux palestres et d’une longue basilique thermale couverte, comprenait aussi des latrines monumentales, une grande piscine à ciel ouvert (natatio) entourée de gradins et un ensemble de salles. Si le complexe thermal visible aujourd’hui appartient à la période protobyzantine, plusieurs phases antérieures ont été reconnues.
- Deux quartiers d’habitation différents, avec une occupation antique et médiévale, ont été étudiés.
- Les vestiges d’un martyrium protobyzantin jadis méconnu occupent l’Est du site.
- Au Nord de la zone envisagée, la cathédrale construite par les Francs au XIIe s. a succédé à une mosquée d’époque fatimide.
Au-delà de ces recherches sur des bâtiments individuels, il sera question des évolutions de l’urbanisme de l’ensemble de cette zone, depuis l’âge du Fer jusqu’à la fin du XIIIe s., époque où elle était devenue un quartier artisanal.
 

Port Life: Osteological insights into crusader period society in Sidon

 

Richard Mikulski

 

 

Whilst archaeological interest in the Crusades has gained momentum in recent years, the emphasis of such investigations has remained firmly focussed on crusader architecture and material culture. In contrast, there have been remarkably few reports or investigations of the skeletal remains of actual participants during this turbulent period, despite the fact that such remains represent the most direct evidence for human lives and relationships.

Between 2009 and 2010, archaeological research excavations at College Site, Sidon revealed evidence of a mass grave containing the remains of at least 21 individuals, presenting healed injuries, multiple sharp force wounds inflicted at or around the time of death and evidence of limited burning. Associated with the remains were a variety of artefacts, including several elements of crusader material culture. Radiocarbon dates suggest the deposit dates to the latter half of the crusader period, between AD 1150 and 1256.

This paper presents preliminary research results, addressing questions relating to the health and identity of the group as represented through macroscopic observations of skeletal and dental health status indicators and results of isotopic analyses. Results are discussed in the context of other findings from similarly dated cemetery sites in the region.

Du marbre grec en Phénicie – voies et frais de transport  Rolf A. Stucky La connaissance de la provenance probable des différents marbres, utilisés pour des sculptures et des éléments d’architecture découverts en Phénicie, est relativement récente. Les analyses des œuvres du Musée National à Beyrouth, par une équipe de géologues suisse sous la direction de Danielle Decrouez (BAAL 14, 2010, pp. 355-366), ont apporté une information utile pour les études archéologiques sur les sculptures en marbre.
L’objectif de ma communication est de préciser, pour les époques sous domination perse et grecque, les carrières qui fournissaient le marbre et à quelle période ainsi que  le trajet emprunté et les frais pour acheminer les précieux chargements depuis la Grèce antique vers les ports des métropoles phéniciennes.
Extraction and use of stone: The quarries of Kharayeb Silvia Festuccia
Associate researcher to ISMACNR
In the archaeological site of Kharayeb (Southern Lebanon), on a calcareous spur of 390 meters in circumference, an extended area of quarries has been identified in close relationship with the Hellenistic cult place. The aim of the archaeological research in progress, is to identify the full extent of the calcareous sandstone quarry, to reconstruct the organization of the stone extraction operations and to allow comparison with what was built in terms of quantity, quality and volume, especially in connection with the Phoenician cult place of Hellenistic period. The blocks have been identified and recognized mostly because on the quarry faces are clearly visible the negative traces left by the metallic tools. We compared the negative imprints left on the cutting fronts of the quarries with the construction stones of the sanctuary. The discovery of the stone extraction area, the natural replenishment area for the construction materials, is important for a better understanding of the possibilities and the modalities of the natural resources exploitation during a well define period of time.

Dépôt en jarre à Byblos : nouvelles recherches sur la composition d'un dépôt votif de l'âge du Bronze.

Sophie Cluzan   Les dépôts votifs de Byblos constituent un corpus de données à la fois spécifiques et uniques par leur quantité et leur diversité. En effet, si l'acte d'enfouir ou de "déposer" des objets est une réalité ancienne des sociétés orientales, Byblos reste tout à fait unique à cet égard. Aux enfouissements de statuettes isolées y répondent des ensembles dûment composés et regroupés dans des jarres selon des critères qui restent encore à préciser. La recherche qui sera présentée sur un de ces ensembles clos visera à éclairer cette question et à esquisser quelques nouvelles perspectives.

From land to sea: some reflections on the development of the urban landscape of the Eastern Mediterranean.

 

Stefania Mazzoni

 

The intensification of the maritime routes alongside the inland caravan routes during the Bronze Ages was an essential factor of economic and social development for the communities of the coastal Levant and Anatolia, and set the stage for the emergence of a distinct urbanism of maritime towns with their harbours and commercial quarters. When and how this process occurred and harbours were created are, however, open to debate. Recent evaluations, on the wave of the Mediterranean studies on the “longue durée” and the current Mediterraneism, but also the success of the Ports of Power model, tend to date back to the 2nd (if not the late 3rd) millennium the rise of maritime towns with their international network of sea routes. The paper will address some critical issues on interpreting the  transformation of the Eastern Mediterranean urban landscape on the basis of the archaeological documentation.

The materiality of feasting at Sidon: entangled ideologies on the maritime routes of Mediterranean Stefanos Gimatzidis The Aegean connection of Sidon during the Early Iron Age is reflected on a steadily growing assemblage of Greek banquet wares. There are two interesting aspects in that. The first is the large number of pendent semicircle plates. This ceramic shape, which originated in the Levantine ceramic repertoire, was adapted and locally produced on Euboea during the Protogeometric and Subprotogeometric period, not for local consumption but almost exclusively for export to the Orient. Gradually, plates were replaced by skyphoi and craters that became the most common ceramic imports to Sidon. This shift was more than a simple change in the ceramic taste of the Sidonians. It is closely related to the appropriation by them of Greek feasting habits that demanded the mixing of wine with water prior to its consumption. Otherwise, the symbolic connotations of the motive with two goats climbing antithetically on the tree of life depicted on a large Euboean crater of the mid-8th century BC at Sidon, which is closely related to the Levantine iconography, suggest that also the choice of this particular vessel for consumption at Sidon was not incidental.
The Greek feasting pottery assemblage of Sidon dates earlier than the introduction of the institution of symposion in the Aegean and Italy. The very same exchange mechanisms that seem to have favored and perhaps required the consumption of Greek Early Iron Age pottery in the Orient, may also account for the appropriation of the symposion in the West. Any reconstruction of the form and intensity of these networks may indeed seem rather conjectural today, it is very probable though that they explain also the adaption of the Phoenician plate earlier in the Aegean and perhaps the growing need for Greek sympotic wares in certain Levantine sites such as al Mina from the second half of the 8th century BC onwards.

Recent Glass Discoveries in Sidon

Local and International Trade

Tania Zaven

Recent glass discoveries from both College and Sandikli sites in Sidon, under the direction of Dr. Doumet, as well as those recovered from Wastani 1335 under the direction of Dr. el Masri have revealed the major importance of this material.  Ranging from every day objects to luxurious artifacts, these findings date from the MBA period to the present times.  Many historians refer to Sidon either as the birthplace forglass manufacture or for its accidental discovery (Pliny, Natural History 36, 191-194). Large raw glass chunks and ingots were recently discovered, most probably belonging to a primary glass kiln dating to the early roman period.  Sidonian glassproduction was dedicated to local consumption and exported to the neighboring regions and over the Mediterranean Sea. Strabo refers to 2 major cities Alexandria and Sidon as the most important glass-making centers during the 1st c. A.D.

He further states that Sidon has the best sand suitable for glass making. (Strabo, Geography 16: 2-25). This overview of the latest glass discoveries will shed light on the major role this material played in the industry and the socio-economical aspect of Sidon as well as its regional and international influence.

La Grande Tyr de Hiram Ier : Le problème topographique de l¹identification du sanctuaire de Zeus Olympios d¹après les sources littéraires. Theodoros Mavrojannis, Associate Professor of Ancient History at the University of Cyprus En suivant Flavius Josèphe, qui reprend à la lettre les historiens d’époque hellénistique Dion et Ménandre d’Ephèse, on comprend mal qu’il ait pu être possible que l’agrandissement monumental de la ville de Tyr par Hiram Ier ait pu se limiter aux horizons étroits de l’île de Sur. On ne peut pas non plus expliquer du point de vue topographique, comment le “grand espace comblé”, que les Anciens appelaient Eurychoron, “Le Grand Champ”, et qui était probablement une sorte d’agora autour du temple de Zeus Olympios, ait pu avoir été installé sur la petite île qui forme aujourd’hui la pointe sud-est de la presqu’île. Simplement, il n’y a pas là l’espace suffisant, correspondant aux dimensions suggérées par les textes en grec. Il faut rechercher le Grand Champ de Hiram Ier, auquel les Grecs, évidemment plus tard, ont donné le nom d’Eurychoron, ailleurs. Le seul fait par lui-même, transmis par la tradition, d’un agrandissement de la surface de la ville vers l’Est, en direction d’un sanctuaire de Zeus Olympios, aurait dû au moins renvoyer à la possibilité qu’il ait existé de gigantesques travaux de remblayage vers le continent, où il devait déjà avoir existé un isthme plus étroit, au tracé malléable défini par les sables du fond.
Jiyeh (Porphyreon) and Chhim. Recent research on rural settlements in the Sidon Hinterland. Tomasz Waliszewski, Director
Polish Centre of Mediterranean Archaeology
University of Warsaw
The question of change and continuity in the settlement patterns of Phoenician coast in the Sidon hinterland remains a subject particularly interesting but also poorly investigated, especially for the transition period between the Iron Age and the Greco-Roman period. Excavations conducted in recent years by joint Polish-Lebanese expedition in Jiyeh (Porphyreon) and Chhim, two rural sites situated north of Sidon, shed important light on that question, revealing complex stratigraphy extending from at least the eighth century BC to the seventh century AD. Research allowed a better understanding of local economic system, with villages such as Porphyreon providing the city of Sidon and on the other hand mediating the exchange of goods with rural settlements, such as Chhim, scattered across the mountainous hinterland.

Tyr, Sidon, Byblos & Ugarit : les dieux et les hommes.

Valérie Matoian  

La confrontation des différentes documentations et l'analyse critique des interprétations qui en ont été tirées apportent-elles de nouvelles perspectives de recherche ? L'approche s'appuiera sur les sources textuelles, archéologiques et iconographiques.

Something Old, Something New and Something Blue. Or What New Finds from Sidon Can Do For Scarabs found by Dunand in Byblos Vanessa Boschloos
Royal Museums of Art and History, Brussels
The chronology and contextualisation of Maurice Dunand’s finds in Byblos is known to be impeded by his excavation methodology. Research by proxies, such as comparison with provenanced parallels from well-stratified sites, provides some answers to questions pertaining to the objects’ origin, date, culture, style and function. But what about finds for which almost no comparanda exist?
This problem also extends to the hundreds of scarab-shaped seal-amulets excavated at the site. Contrary to most Bronze Age and Iron Age scarabs from Byblos, for which comparisons are found in the Levant, in Egypt and throughout the eastern Mediterranean, new archaeological discoveries in Sidon are playing an important role in our understanding of some rare types attested at Byblos. This paper discusses some cases demonstrating how scarabs excavated by Claude Doumet in Sidon are stepping stones for the interpretation of more problematic finds from Byblos.

Archaeometallurgy at Sidon. Following the copper trade in the Phoenician harbour cities

Veit Vaelske

Metallurgical analysis of Protogeometric bronze cauldrons produced at Olympia from 950 to 750 BCE has recently shown that the copper for this vessels was imported from Faynan (Jordan). The Copper-Trail-Project at Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany, explores this large scale trafficking of copper via the coastal cities of Phoenicia. Presented will be first results as well as an examination of the historical and economic implications of the copper-trail.

Joined Terracottas from Sidon Zeina Fani Alpi Numerous fragments of terracottas figurines were found in an ancient well during a series of excavations conducted by Dr Claude Doumet Serhal at the 'College' site in Sidon.

Two broken legs garbed in trousers are noteworthy. A hole made by the artisan is visible at the top of the most complete leg and the coloured pigment is still partly preserved.

These legs bear a close resemblance to legs on two articulated male figurines conserved in the National Museum of Beirut that were also found in Sidon.

The numismatic evidence of rivalry between Sidon and Tyre (2nd c. BC-3rd c. AD) Ziad Sawaya and George Abou Diwan (Lebanese University) The secular competition between the Phoenician cities broke up on coins in 169/8 BC with the inauguration of the Seleucid municipal coinage by Antiochos IV. The issuing cities started a frenetic race for glory by inscribing honorific and prestigious titles on their coins. The enmity between Sidon and Tyre was the hardest as each city claimed the foundation of the other. It even affected the coin types depicting local myths. This situation sustained after the autonomy of both cities at the end of the Hellenistic period through to the early Roman Empire. The scope of this paper is to study the rivalry between Sidon and Tyre as reflected by the coins, the reasons behind and their results.

 

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